Stiffelio, a lesser known opera by Giuseppe Verdi, tells the story of a Protestant minister and his adulterous wife, Lina.
It also features Lina’s father who, in what is today described as an honour killing, reclaims his damaged honour by successfully using his sword against his daughter’s seducer.
In a final sermon, the initially enraged Stiffelio is pushed to compassion and forgiveness by being directed to read from the Bible. The book opens on the story of Jesus and the adulteress, and when Stiffelio reads ”Let he who is without sin cast the first stone”, Lina is forgiven.
Interestingly, the opera in the version it was played tonight has been rescued from the censors. Following its premiere, Stiffelio was heavily criticized by the Catholic Church, and most of the plot had to be transposed to eliminate any religious allusion. As a result, Verdi decided to find and destroy all the printed scores; it is only in the 1960s that an autograph version was finally discovered, which allowed for the restoration of the original text and music.
Beyond being the victim of censorship, Stiffelio is about a magnanimous husband but it also tells the story of a woman who is a victim. Lina has little choice in her actions or indeed freedom, between a father, a husband and a seducer. A number of other opera heroines are victims of their male relatives’ decisions. One of the most famous may be Lucia di Lamermoor, who, because she is forced to marry someone she does not love, and rather than being unfaithful to her true love, succumbs to madness and kills her husband on her wedding night.
Stiffelio’s Lina, the victim of a seducer, fares better and is forgiven by a compassionate and religious husband. This tale of redemption and forgiveness takes increased relevance at a time when honour killings are practiced on a too regular basis, and when world media still report news of adulterous women and men being stoned to death.