Archive for the ‘17th Century’ Category

Freedom of conscience and the City of Brotherly Love

Saturday, May 21st, 2011

William Penn, Newcastle, Delaware

William Penn, Newcastle, Delaware

As the World Day for Cultural Diversity is being celebrated today on 21 May, it seems fitting to remember the vision of William Penn for an inclusive society, a place where various religious groups would live together in peace and harmony.

William Penn was born in England on 14 October 1644, the son of William Penn, an English captain in the Navy and Margaret Jasper, herself the daughter of a rich Dutch merchant from Rotterdam. When William was born, his twenty-three year old father was blockading Irish ports as part of the effort to quell Irish Catholic unrest. The captain was rewarded for his role in the English Civil War with lands in Ireland that had been confiscated from Irish Catholics following the massacre of Protestants. Those were turbulous times: Oliver Cromwell had led a successful Puritan revolution against Charles I, resulting in the King being beheaded in 1649.

Penn spent his youth between England and Ireland where his father was exiled for a while after a failed mission to the Caribbean. It is there that, at fifteen, young William first heard Thomas Loe, a Quaker missionary. The talk Loe gave made a lasting impression on the young man who had become interested in religious issues. Quakers belonged in a Protestant sect founded in 1647 by George Fox, and believed in a direct relationship with God. Morals for them were guided by an individual’s conscience, and not by the Bible.

Following Oliver Cromwell’s death, the Puritan Revolution came to an end and William Penn’s father, who since had been promoted to the rank of Admiral, was instrumental in bringing Charles II back to the throne. As a result, Admiral Penn was knighted and became Commissioner of the Navy.

Meanwhile, William Penn was sent to study at Oxford, where students came from various religious background, including aristocratic Protestants, austere Puritans and non-conformist Quakers. Among the faculty were free-thinkers: one of them, a dean was eventually fired. Young William, along with a number of students decided to stand by the dean, resulting in their being fined and reprimanded. Following this incident, stricter religious practices were imposed by the administration: Penn rebelled against imposed chapel attendance worship and was expelled. His parents then decided to expose him to a different culture and sent him to France where he studied in Saumur for one year with Moise Amyrault at l’Academie Protestante, the most respected Protestant university in the country. There Penn learned about religious toleration.

William Penn

William Penn

Upon his return to England, Penn studied law and then served as his father’s personal assistant, a position which allowed him to gain access to king Charles II and his brother the Duke of York. In the gloomy aftermath of the Great Plague, and the Great Fire in London, Penn elected to settle for a while in the Irish family estate. At a time when restrictions against all religious groups other than Anglican were being severely tightened, Penn started to attend Quaker meetings.

In 1667, Penn was arrested at one of these meetings. Upon his insisting that he was a Quaker, and demanding to be treated as such, he was sent to jail. It is in prison that he first wrote about freedom of conscience. Because of his father’s position, he was eventually released and returned to England. Admiral Penn tried to reason with his son to no avail; giving up, he decided to disown his son who eventually found shelter with Quaker families. It is during that period, that he met his first wife, Gulielma Springett, whom he finally married in 1672, and that he became friends with Georges Fox, with whom he traveled around Europe. Fox had founded the Quaker movement during the more tolerant years of the Puritan revolution. The movement had no written doctrine, Penn became its first theorist.

His writings led him to the Tower of London where he was imprisoned for eight months. While in prison, he wrote one of his most famous pamphlets: No Cross, No Crown. Remorseless, once free, Penn continued his religious activities. In 1670, in an attempt to test the new law against assembly, Penn convoked a public meeting during which he started preaching. He was arrested. At the trial, contrary to the law in effect at the time, he was denied the right to hear the charges against him, and the jury was asked to give their verdict without hearing the defence. In spite of this, jurors found him not guilty and refused to change their verdict. Although the judge sentenced them to jail, they still refused to change their verdict. The jurors spent more than two months in prison, and fought for their right from jail. They won, an outcome that led thereon to the recognition of the right for English juries to not be coerced or punished for their verdict.

Following his release from prison, Penn traveled to Germany and the Netherlands to study the living conditions of Quakers in these countries. What impressed him the most what the freedom he observed in the Netherlands, which had become a land of asylum for persecuted Jews and Protestants from various parts of Europe. The peaceful coexistence of various religious there inspired him to develop a vision of a community based on liberty.

Back in England, Penn tried to introduce the concept of religious toleration, with the support of the King, but failed with the Parliament. At this point, he realized that such a project could only be achieved outside of England. A mass immigration of Quakers was planned, and a group of them, including Penn, purchased a land in North America: West Jersey.

Trying to expand the Quaker region, Penn decided to go to the King and ask for a charter that would establish an American colony. The King and his brother were indebted to Admiral Penn, who, before his death had asked for their protection of young Penn. The charter was granted and Penn was given a territory located South of West Jersey and North of Maryland, making him the largest land owner after the King. Penn suggested it be called Sylvania, it was the King who suggested Pennsylvania, adding Penn’s name in honour of the deceased Admiral. In return, one fifth of the gold and silver that would be mined in the province, along with two beaver skins would have to go to the King at the beginning of each year.

Penn and the Charter of Liberties

Penn and the Charter of Liberties

The charter was signed on March 4, 1681. While still in England, in early 1682, Penn started working on his charter of liberties for the territory, the First Frame of Government for the Province of Pennsylvania. Most importantly, the document guaranteed freedom of worship to all inhabitants. Religious toleration was foremost, but another set of rights was also granted which reflected Penn’s early experiences. Freedom of the press, as well as the right to a fair trial by jury, and free elections along with more generally the rights of Englishmen were recognized by the Frame of Government for “all the freemen, planters and adventurers of, in and to the province” of Pennsylvania.

Penn sailed to America and landed in Newcastle on 27 October 1682.

Penn landed in Newcastle, Delaware

Penn landed in Newcastle, Delaware

In spite of having been given the territory through a royal charter, Penn decided that he would purchase the land from the Lenape Indians, and after some negotiations, a price of 1,200 pounds was agreed upon.

Penn's Treaty with the Lenape Indians

Penn's Treaty

With friends, he set to establish a city between the Delaware and the Schuylkill rivers, naming it Philadelphia, the city of brotherly love. Penn also chose the names of the major streets, such as Spruce, Chestnut, Broad and Pine. Meanwhile, he had invited Quakers to join his community: some 250 settlers responded. He later advertised his land of religious freedom all over Europe, and representatives from persecuted minorities arrived: Huguenots, Mennonites, Amish, Catholics, Lutherans, and Jews coming from England, France, Holland, Germany, Sweden, Finland, Ireland, and Wales.

The First Frame of Government was revised, and twenty drafts were issued. One of the great innovative ideas Penn came up with was the introduction of amendments that would allow to respond to changing times and circumstances and enable social changes without violent uprisings or revolutions.

In 1684, Penn returned to England to see his family. Conditions had changed there with a new absolutism modeled after the French monarchy. Books were being burnt, quakers were being sent to jail. Penn was able to help save a number of them, including George Fox himself. Meanwhile, in the colonies, his business manager, Philip Ford, was proving unworthy of the confidence entrusted in him. Ford cheated his employer by having Penn sign a deed transferring Pennsylvania to his business manager.

Much of Penn’s later years were marked by his fight to recover from this deed transfer. He returned to America in 1699 where he stayed until 1701 with his new wife, whom he had married in 1696 two years after Gulielma’s death. Back in England, having lost most of his money, he was sued by Ford’s widow who, in 1702, had Penn imprisoned for debt. Fellow Quakers collected money to get him released, and in 1708, a ruling allowed Penn to regain Pennsylvania, for himself and his heirs. Four years later, he suffered a stroke and died penniless soon thereafter.

William Penn, Philadelphia

William Penn, Philadelphia

In spite of his later years troubles, Penn’s legacy is one of a man who fought for his convictions, defended freedom of religion and developed a model for a free society where people of different ethnic background and religion could live in peace. His Frame of Government inspired Jefferson for the Declaration of Independence.

“Any government is free to the people under it (whatever be the frame) where the laws rule, and the people are a party to those laws, and more than this is tyranny, oligarchy, or confusion.”

A book chest to Paris

Wednesday, November 4th, 2009

Probably best known today in the Netherlands for his escape from Loevenstein Castle, Hugo Grotius has gained international recognition as one of the fathers of international law, along with a Spaniard, Francisco de Vitoria.

Grotius in front of Neuwe Kirke, Delft
Grotius in front of Nieuwe Kerk, Delft

Hugo de Groot, born in Delft in 1583, entered University at age 11, and by the age of 14 had already published his first book. At 15, he accompanied a leading politician to Paris, where he was hailed by King Henry IV of France as “the miracle of Holland.”

In 1609, he laid the principle of the sea as international territory, which all nations were free to use to support their trade activities.

Shortly after that, Grotius got involved in a theological dispute between orthodox Calvinists and Reformers, and claimed that Calvinist beliefs could have political and religious dangers to Protestantism. For Grotius, while recognition by the State that the existence of God was essential to maintain civil order, personal beliefs regarding theological doctrines should be left to each indidivual to determine.

The dispute resulted in an outburst of hostilities, with the ensuing raising of troops and intervention of the stadtholder, Maurice of Nassau, Prince van Oranje, who staged a coup, overthrowing the States General of which Grotius was a member. Grotius was sentenced to life imprisonment in Loevenstein Castle, in 1618.

Three years later, Grotius managed to escape from the castle. His wife, Maria van Reigersbergen, had sent a trunk which had to be removed on the pretence that it was filled with books. Hidden in the chest, Grotius was able to get out, undiscovered, and take refuge in Antwerp and from there flee to Paris.

His first book published in Paris, in 1625, was to be his most famous work: On the Law of War and Peace. Started while he was in prison, the book sets a system of principles of natural law, the “just war” is defined as a war to obtain a right.

Hugo Grotius, Delft

Hugo Grotius, Delft

Also started while he was in prison, On the Truth of the Christian Religion defends Christian belief: a huge success, this work was used for almost two centuries to support missionary work.

Following Maurice van Oranje’s death, Grotius tried to be allowed back in the Netherlands. For a while, in 1631, he practiced law in Amsterdam, but was soon forced to flee his country again in April 1632 for Hamburg. From there, he was invited to serve as Swedish Ambassador to France. During this time, he returned to his project of Christian unity, harmonizing the various Protestant factions and the Protestants with the Catholics.

He was recalled by Queen Christine of Sweden from his ambassadorial position in March 1645. On the way back to Sweden, the ship wrecked and Grotius barely escaped with his life. After a few months in Sweden, Grotius left for Hamburg and following a long crossing, weak and ill, he died in Rostock, Germany, in August 1645. 

His body was buried in the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft, the city where he was born.

Chesapeake, George Calvert and Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Saturday, February 21st, 2009

Free to be Catholic, Annapolis

Free to be Catholic, Annapolis, December 2008

Visiting Chesapeake recently was another opportunity to verify that discrimination based on religious belief has been a reality for many centuries.

As one reads up about the early days of American history, it quickly becomes very clear that a large number of the early discoverers and settlers wished to lead a life where they would be free to practice their religious beliefs.

The history of Maryland has been shaped by settlers and people who stood up for their rights. The similarities between two men who deeply influenced the future of the State - George Calvert, first Lord Baltimore, and Charles Carroll of Carrollton - were a seredenpitous discovery. Thanks to a royal charter, the first Lord Baltimore - named after Baltimore, Ireland - basically created Maryland. By fighting on the side of independence from the British crown, Charles Carroll played a pivotal role in ensuring that Maryland became one of the 13 founding States. Both men were Catholic, and both men were subject to laws discriminating against Catholics.

This heritage may explain the Free to be Catholic sign which was on display on a religious building close to Charles Carroll of Carrollton’s house in Annapolis, in early December 2008.

Annapolis Church

Annapolis Church

George Calvert, first Lord Baltimore, came to the New World in the hope of finding a refuge for English Catholics. After establishing Avalon, on the island of Newfoundland, he looked for a gentler climate and obtained a royal charter to settle the region that is now Maryland.

In England, Calvert’s family had had to suffer from two penal laws, enacted during the reign of Elizabeth I. The Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity of 1559 required that any citizen wishing to hold a high office would need to pledge an oath of allegiance to the Queen. The oath included a denial of the authority of the Pope over the church.

As a child, George was subjected to many forms of interference in the religious life of the Calvert family: they were compelled to attend church, one of his tutors having been denounced as popish, he and his brother were sent to a Protestant tutor. Catholic servants were banned, and the family was forced to purchase and display an English Bible. In 1593, his mother Grace was committed to the custody of an official responsible for prosecuting Catholics, a “pursuivant.”

After graduating from Oxford, Calvert occupied several positions that led him to becoming one of the two principal Secretaries of State of King James in 1619. As a member of a commission, Calvert in 1613 had to recommend for Catholic schools to be suppressed in Ireland.

Early on, Calvert demonstrated interest in the exploration of the New World, and he invested money in the Virginia Company and the East India Company. When he obtained the position of Commissioner of the Treasury, with rights on the duties collected on imported raw silk, his fortune was secured. In 1620, Calvert purchased a tract of land in Newfoundland.

In 1625, shortly after he resigned his Secretariat position, his conversion to Catholicism became public knowledge. He had retained his place on the Privy Council, a position he had to also abandon when King Charles I required all privy councilors to take the oaths of supremacy and allegiance.

After having moved to Ireland, Calvert decided to pursue his interest in Avalon, the colony he had established in Newfoundland  where he promoted free religious worship, allowing  Catholics to worship in one part of his house and the Protestants in another.

One winter in Avalon was enough to convince him that the rigorous climate was not suited for his colony, and he moved to Jamestown in Virginia, where he knew tobacco could be grown. Upon his refusing to sign the oaths of supremacy and allegiance there, he had to leave and go back to England where he fought for a charter granting him rights over a piece of land on both sides of the Chesapeake Bay. The charter was finally granted on 20 June 1632, five weeks after his death, and Maryland became a refuge for British Catholics, who emigrated to settle tobacco plantations.

A century and a half later, Charles Carroll of Carrollton was the only Catholic to sign the Declaration of Independence. The son of a wealthy plantation owner of Irish descent, he was born in 1737 in Annapolis, Maryland.

Plate to Charles Carroll of Carrollton in front of his house, Annapolis, Maryland

Plate to Charles Carroll of Carrollton in front of his house, Annapolis, Maryland

At the age of eight, he was sent to France where he studied at a college run by English Jesuits in Saint-Omer, and then in Paris, at Louis le Grand. Having started to study law in Bourges and Paris, in 1757, he moved to London to complete his legal education and returned to Maryland in 1765.

Under laws of the British Colonies - similar to those that forced Calvert to resign his Cabinet position - as a Roman Catholic, Carroll was deprived of political rights, including the right to vote.

After the passage of the Stamp Act, and the exorbitant taxes imposed by Maryland Governor Eden, Carroll  became actively involved politically and started writing in the Maryland Gazette, under the name The First Citizen, defending the colonies rights to control their own taxation, and arguing for a return to natural law.

A member of the Annapolis Convention, in early 1776, he was sent to Canada by the Continental Congress along with Benjamin Franklin and Samuel Chase. Their mission was to persuade the Canadian colonies to relinquish their allegiance to the British crown, and join the American colonies in their fight for independence.  Although the mission to Canada failed, Carroll became instrumental in convincing a reserved Maryland Convention to vote for independence.

On July 4, 1776, he was elected to the Continental Congress, and while he was too late to vote for it, he signed the Declaration of Independence, which was officially signed by all members of Congress on an engrossed on parchment version, on August, 2, 1776.

Signing the Declaration entailed a risk for all the signers - as they exposed themselves to confiscation of their properties - but maybe more so for Charles Carroll, considered to be the colonies’ wealthiest individual. Recognizing this, he made sure to add of Carrollton to his signature to ensure that he would be properly identified.

Carroll died at 95 in 1832, two centuries after Calvert, and at the time of his death, as the longest living signer of the Declaration, was regarded with veneration by the American people.